Virucidal Efficacy of Olanexidine Gluconate as a Hand Antiseptic Against Human Norovirus.

Human noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since no therapeutic agent has been proven to prevent human norovirus infection yet, preventive healthcare interventions to block the infection routes play an important role in infection control.

One of the possible infection routes of human noroviruses are through contaminated hands, but no hand antiseptics have been proven effective. Olanexidine gluconate is a new biguanide compound that has already been approved for sale as an antiseptic for the surgical field in Japan.

A new hand antiseptic was developed using olanexidine gluconate in this study, and its virucidal efficacy against human noroviruses was evaluated using modified RT-qPCR that can account for genome derived from intact viruses using RNase A and photo-reactive intercalators. Nattrol viral control was used as positive control with Cepheid GenExpert.

 

Other NaT controls:

  1. NATADV1-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 01 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  2. NATADV31-ST    NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 31 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  3. NATADV3-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 03 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  4. NATADV40-GP    NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 40 (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  5. NATADV40-ST    NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 40 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  6. NATADV41-GP    NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 41 (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  7. NATADV41-ST    NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 41 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  8. NATADV4-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 04 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  9. NATADV5-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 05 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  10. NATADV7A-ST    NATtrol detection reference for Adenovirus Type 07A Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  11. NATAMR-ERC     NATtrol detection reference for AdV/hMPV/HRV Control (6 X 0.5mL)        170 €
  12. NATBC/GP-NNS NATtrol detection reference for BC/GP Panel (10 X 0.75 mL)         538 €
  13. NATBCGN-NNS  NATtrol detection reference for BC/GN Panel (12 X 0.75 mL)         631 €
  14. NATBCP-BIO       NATtrol detection reference for BCID Panel (23 x 0.2mL) 839 €
  15. NATBK-ERCL       NATtrol detection reference for BK Virus External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)        270 €
  16. NATBK-ERCM     NATtrol detection reference for BK Virus External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)     328 €
  17. NATBK-LIN          NATtrol detection reference for BK Virus Linearity Panel (6 X 0.25 mL)      448 €
  18. NATBRD-6L         NATtrol detection reference for B. pertussis/parapertussis Positive Control (6 x 0.25 mL)      204 €
  19. NATBVNEG-BD   NATtrol detection reference for BV Negative Control (6 X 0.15mL)             222 €
  20. NATBVPOS-BD   NATtrol detection reference for BV Positive Control (6 X 0.15mL)               334 €
  21. NATCDI(NAP1)-ERCL        NATtrol detection reference for Clostridium difficile NAP1, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)         328 €
  22. NATCDI(NAP1)-ERCM      NATtrol detection reference for Clostridium difficile NAP1, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL) 419 €
  23. NATCDI-6L          NATtrol detection reference for C. difficile Positive Control (6 x 0.25 mL) 204 €
  24. NATCDI-6MC      NATtrol detection reference for Clostridium difficile Positive Control (6 x 0.5 mL)        248 €
  25. NATCDI-GP         NATtrol detection reference for Clostridium difficile (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  26. NATCDIVP-C       NATtrol detection reference for Clostridium difficile Verification Panel (6 X 1 mL)        450 €
  27. NATCHIKV-ST     NATtrol detection reference for CHIKUNGUNYA VIR STOCK           1.016 €
  28. NATCJE-GP          NATtrol detection reference for Campylobacter jejuni (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  29. NATCMV-0001   NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 (400 cp/mL) (1 mL)    34 €
  30. NATCMV-0002   NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 (5,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)       119 €
  31. NATCMV-0003   NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 (10,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    221 €
  32. NATCMV-0004   NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    381 €
  33. NATCMV-0005   NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 (100,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)  660 €
  34. NATCMV-ERCL   NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 External Run Control, Low (6X1 mL)         270 €
  35. NATCMV-ERCM NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain:AD-169 External Run Control, Medium (6X1mL)   328 €
  36. NATCMV-LIN      NATtrol detection reference for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Strain: AD-169 Linearity Panel (6 X 0.25 mL)       448 €
  37. NATCOV(229E)-ST            NATtrol detection reference for Coronavirus 229E Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)    1.016 €
  38. NATCOV(NL63)-ST            NATtrol detection reference for Coronavirus NL63 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  39. NATCOV(OC43)-ST           NATtrol detection reference for Coronavirus OC43 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  40. NATCRVP-C         NATtrol detection reference for CARBA-R Verification Panel (10 x 0.06 mL)               206 €
  41. NATCSO-6MC     NATtrol detection reference for Clostridium difficile Negative Control (6 x 0.5 mL) 248 €
  42. NATCT(434)-6MC             NATtrol detection reference for Chlamydia trachomatis Positive Control (6 X 1 mL)            262 €
  43. NATCT(434)-ERCL             NATtrol detection reference for Chlamydia trachomatis LGV II 434, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)       270 €
  44. NATCT(434)-ERCM           NATtrol detection reference for Chlamydia trachomatis LGV II 434, External Run Control, Medium (6X1mL)   328 €
  45. NATCT(D-UW3)-ERCL      NATtrol detection reference for Chlamydia trachomatis serotype D, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)       270 €
  46. NATCT(D-UW3)-ERCM    NATtrol detection reference for Chlamydia trachomatis serotype D, External Run Control, Medium (6X1mL)   328 €
  47. NATCT/NGNEG-6MC       NATtrol detection reference for CT/NG External Run Control, Negative (6 X 1 mL)         165 €
  48. NATCT/NGP-C    NATtrol detection reference for CT/NG Panel (17 X 1.2 mL)           769 €
  49. NATCTVPOS-BD NATtrol detection reference for Candida/TV Positive Control (ea)               334 €
  50. NATCXVA9-6C    NATtrol detection reference for Influenza/RSV Negative Control (6 x 0.5mL)               165 €
  51. NATCXVA9-6MC               NATtrol detection reference for Influenza Negative Control (6 X 0.5 mL)        170 €
  52. NATCXVA9-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Coxsackievirus Type A9 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)    1.016 €
  53. NATCXVB3-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Coxsackievirus Type B3 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)    1.016 €
  54. NATCXVB4-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Coxsackievirus Type B4 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)    1.016 €
  55. NATCXVB5-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Coxsackievirus Type B5 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)    1.016 €
  56. NATEBV-0001     NATtrol detection reference for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8 (100 cp/mL) (1 mL)    34 €
  57. NATEBV-0002     NATtrol detection reference for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8 (500 cp/mL) (1 mL)    69 €
  58. NATEBV-0003     NATtrol detection reference for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8 (1,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    119 €
  59. NATEBV-0004     NATtrol detection reference for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8 (10,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    221 €
  60. NATEBV-0005     NATtrol detection reference for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8 (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    382 €
  61. NATEBV-0006     NATtrol detection reference for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8 (100,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)  660 €
  62. NATEBV-ERCL    NATtrol detection reference for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8, External Run Control-Low (6X1mL)            261 €
  63. NATEBV-ERCM   NATtrol detection reference for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Strain:B95-8,External Run Control-Medium(6X1mL)  318 €
  64. NATEBV-LIN       NATtrol detection reference for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Strain: B95-8  (Linearity Panel (6 X 0.5 mL)        492 €
  65. NATECHO11-ST  NATtrol detection reference for Echovirus Type 11 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)               1.016 €
  66. NATECHO6-ST    NATtrol detection reference for Echovirus Type 6 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)               1.016 €
  67. NATECO(933)-ERCL          NATtrol detection reference for Escherichia coli 0157:H7;EDL933, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)       270 €
  68. NATECO(933)-ERCM        NATtrol detection reference for Escherichia coli 0157:H7;EDL933, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)              328 €
  69. NATECO(933)-GP              NATtrol detection reference for Escherichia coli (Stool Matrix)  (0.5 mL)        41 €
  70. NATECO(ETEC)-GP           NATtrol detection reference for Escherichia coli (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)        41 €
  71. NATEHI(DS4)-GP               NATtrol detection reference for Entamoeba histolytica (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  72. NATEPC-NNS      NATtrol detection reference for EP Control (12 x 0.25 mL; 2 x 1mL)            339 €
  73. NATEVNEG-6MC               NATtrol detection reference for EV Negative Control (6 X 0.2 mL)               155 €
  74. NATEVP-C           NATtrol detection reference for EV Panel (20 X 0.2 mL)    515 €
  75. NATEVPOS-6MC               NATtrol detection reference for EV Positive Control (6 X 0.2 mL)  155 €
  76. NATFLUA/B-6MC              NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A/B  Positive Control (6 X 0.5 mL) 170 €
  77. NATFLUAB-6C    NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A/B Positive Control (6 x 0.5mL)               165 €
  78. NATFLUAH1-ERCL            NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H1, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)  270 €
  79. NATFLUAH1-ERCM          NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H1, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)         328 €
  80. NATFLUAH1N1-6MC        NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H1N1 Positive Control (6 X 0.5 mL)             170 €
  81. NATFLUAH1N1-ERCL       NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H1N1, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)  270 €
  82. NATFLUAH1N1-ERCM     NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H1N1, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)         328 €
  83. NATFLUAH1-ST  NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H1 Virus Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  84. NATFLUAH3-ST  NATtrol detection reference for Influenza A H3 Virus Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)        1.016 €
  85. NATFLUB-ERCL  NATtrol detection reference for Influenza B, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)        270 €
  86. NATFLUB-ERCM NATtrol detection reference for Influenza B, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)            328 €
  87. NATFLUB-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Influenza B Virus Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)               1.016 €
  88. NATFLURSV-6C  NATtrol detection reference for Influenza/RSV Positive Control (6 x 0.5 mL)               165 €
  89. NATFLURSV-6L   NATtrol detection reference for Influenza/RSV Positive Control (6 x 0.25mL)               204 €
  90. NATFRVP-C         NATtrol detection reference for Influenza/RSV Verification Panel (21 x 0.5mL)   668 €
  91. NATFVP(XP)-C     NATtrol detection reference for Influenza Verification Panel (18 x 0.5mL)               556 €
  92. NATFVP-JAN       NATtrol detection reference for Influenza Verification Panel (7 x 1.0 mL) 396 €
  93. NATFVP-NNS      NATtrol detection reference for Flu Verification Panel (7 X 0.5 mL)             321 €
  94. NATGIC-BIO        NATtrol detection reference for GI Controls (12 x 0.2 mL)              365 €
  95. NATGIP-ABC       NATtrol detection reference for GI Panel (17 x 0.25mL; 2 x 0.85 mL)          664 €
  96. NATGIP-BIO        NATtrol detection reference for GI Panel (22 x 0.25mL; 4 x 0.85 mL)          834 €
  97. NATHBV-0001    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) (400 IU/mL) (1 mL)    34 €
  98. NATHBV-0002    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) (5,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     119 €
  99. NATHBV-0003    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) (50,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     381 €
  100. NATHBV-0006    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) (10,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     221 €
  101. NATHCV-0001    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (200 IU/mL) (1 mL)    34 €
  102. NATHCV-0002    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (1,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     119 €
  103. NATHCV-0003    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (10,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     221 €
  104. NATHCV-0004    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (50,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     381 €
  105. NATHCV-0005    NATtrol detection reference for Human Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (100,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     660 €
  106. NATHHV6-ST      NATtrol detection reference for Human Herpes Virus (HHV) Type 6B Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  107. NATHHV7-ST      NATtrol detection reference for Human Herpes Virus (HHV) Type 7 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  108. NATHHV8-ST      NATtrol detection reference for Human Herpes Virus (HHV) Type 8 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  109. NATHIV1-ERCL   NATtrol detection reference for HIV Type 1 Strain: IIIB External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)   270 €
  110. NATHIV1-ERCM NATtrol detection reference for HIV Type 1 Strain: IIIB External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)          328 €
  111. NATHIV1-LIN      NATtrol detection reference for HIV Type 1 Strain: IIIB Linearity Panel (6 X 0.25 mL)              448 €
  112. NATHMPV-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  113. NATHRV-STN      NATtrol detection reference for Human Rhinovirus Type 1A Stock(Qualitative) (1 mL)              1.016 €
  114. NATHSV1-0001  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strain: MacIntyre (100 cp/mL) (1 mL)     26 €
  115. NATHSV1-0002  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strain: MacIntyre (500 cp/mL) (1 mL)     34 €
  116. NATHSV1-0003  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strain: MacIntyre (1,000 cp/mL) (1 mL) 76 €
  117. NATHSV1-0004  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strain: MacIntyre (10,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)              221 €
  118. NATHSV1-0005  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strain: MacIntyre (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)              381 €
  119. NATHSV2-0001  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Strain: MS (100 cp/mL) (1 mL)    26 €
  120. NATHSV2-0002  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Strain: MS (500 cp/mL) (1 mL)    34 €
  121. NATHSV2-0003  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Strain: MS (1,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)       76 €
  122. NATHSV2-0004  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Strain: MS (10,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    221 €
  123. NATHSV2-0005  NATtrol detection reference for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Strain: MS  (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    381 €
  124. NATHSV-6L         NATtrol detection reference for HSV 1 & 2 Positive Control (6 x 0.25 mL) 204 €
  125. NATHTLVII-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) Type II Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)             1.016 €
  126. NATHTLVI-ST      NATtrol detection reference for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) Type I Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)             1.016 €
  127. NATLAC-6MC     NATtrol detection reference for GBS Negative Control (6 X 0.5 mL)            248 €
  128. NATMEC-BIO      NATtrol detection reference for Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Controls (12 x 0.2 mL) 335 €
  129. NATMEP-BIO      NATtrol detection reference for Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel (14 x 0.4 mL)               548 €
  130. NATMGN-ERC    NATtrol detection reference for Mycoplasma genitalium External Run Control (6 x 0.25mL)        225 €
  131. NATMHV-ST        NATtrol detection reference for Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) Stock (1 mL)               1.046 €
  132. NATMPN(M129)-ERCL     NATtrol detection reference for Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)       270 €
  133. NATMPN(M129)-ERCM   NATtrol detection reference for Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)              328 €
  134. NATMRSA/SAP-C              NATtrol detection reference for MRSA/SA Panel (5 X 0.5 mL)        271 €
  135. NATMRSA-6MC  NATtrol detection reference for MRSA Positive Control  (6 X 0.5 mL)         241 €
  136. NATMRSANP-C  NATtrol detection reference for MRSA Verification Panel (6 X 0.5mL)        325 €
  137. NATMRSAP-C     NATtrol detection reference for MRSA Panel  (4 X 0.5 mL)              218 €
  138. NATMSSA-6MC  NATtrol detection reference for SA Positive Control  (6 X 0.5 mL) 241 €
  139. NATMSSE-6MC  NATtrol detection reference for MRSA/SA Negative Control (6 X 0.5 mL)  241 €
  140. NATMTBP-C        NATtrol detection reference for  MTB Verification Panel (5 x 0.6mL, 6 x 1.6mL)   472 €
  141. NATNG-6MC       NATtrol detection reference for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Positive Control (6 X 1 mL)     262 €
  142. NATNG-ERCL      NATtrol detection reference for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Z017, External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)  270 €
  143. NATNG-ERCM    NATtrol detection reference for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Z017, External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)         328 €
  144. NATNOV-6MC    NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus GI/GII Positive Control (6 x 0.125mL)             152 €
  145. NATNOVI-6MC   NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus GI Positive Control (6 x 0.125mL)               152 €
  146. NATNOVI-GP      NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus Group I (Recombinant) (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  147. NATNOVII-6MC NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus GII Positive Control (6 x 0.125mL)               152 €
  148. NATNOVII-GP     NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus Group II (Recombinant) (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  149. NATNOVII-ST      NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus Group II (Recombinant) Stock (1 mL)        1.016 €
  150. NATNOVI-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus Group I (Recombinant) Stock (1 mL)        1.016 €
  151. NATPARA1-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  152. NATPARA2-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  153. NATPARA3-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  154. NATPARA4-ST     NATtrol detection reference for Parainfluenza Virus Type 4 Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         1.016 €
  155. NATPARVO-0001              NATtrol detection reference for Human Parvovirus B19 (10,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     201 €
  156. NATPARVO-0002              NATtrol detection reference for Human Parvovirus B19 (100,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     444 €
  157. NATPARVO-0003              NATtrol detection reference for Human Parvovirus B19 (1,000,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     887 €
  158. NATPARVO-0004              NATtrol detection reference for Human Parvovirus B19 (10,000,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     1.014 €
  159. NATPARVO-0005              NATtrol detection reference for Human Parvovirus B19 (100,000,000 IU/mL) (1 mL)     1.268 €
  160. NATPIV-ERC        NATtrol detection reference for Parainfluenza Control (6 X 0.5mL)             198 €
  161. NATPJI-ERC         NATtrol detection reference for P. jirovecii Recombinant External Run Control (6 x 0.5mL)          274 €
  162. NATPPA-BIO       NATtrol detection reference for Pneumonia Panel-Atypical Bacteria & Viruses (12 x 0.2mL, 2 x 1.2 mL)  440 €
  163. NATPPQ-BIO       NATtrol detection reference for Pneumonia Panel-Quantifiable Bacteria (17 x 0.2 mL, 3 x 1.2 mL)       625 €
  164. NATROTA-6MC  NATtrol detection reference for Norovirus Negative Control (6 x 0.125mL)               152 €
  165. NATROTA-GP      NATtrol detection reference for Rotavirus (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)               41 €
  166. NATROTA-ST      NATtrol detection reference for Rotavirus Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)               1.016 €
  167. NATRPC2-BIO     NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Panel 2 (RP2) Controls (Ea)   382 €
  168. NATRPC-NNS      NATtrol detection reference for RP Controls (12 x 0.25 mL)           378 €
  169. NATRPP-1            NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Pathogen Panel -1 (6 x 0.25 mL)               387 €
  170. NATRSV-6C         NATtrol detection reference for RSV Positive Control (6 x 0.5mL) 170 €
  171. NATRSVA-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Type A Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)             1.016 €
  172. NATRSVB-ST       NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Type B Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)             1.016 €
  173. NATRVP-1           NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Validation Panel (RVP) (Qualitative) (13 X 0.2 mL)            596 €
  174. NATRVP2-BIO     NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Verification Panel 2 (23 x 0.6mL) (Ea)        860 €
  175. NATRVP-3           NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Validation Panel (RVP) (Qualitative) (17 X 0.2 mL)            759 €
  176. NATRVP-GMK     NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Verification Panel (20 x 0.2mL)               904 €
  177. NATRVP-IDI        NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Verification Panel (RVP) (20 X 0.6 mL) 748 €
  178. NATRVP-NNS      NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Verification Panel (15 x 0.5mL; 2 x 1mL)   604 €
  179. NATRVP-QIA       NATtrol detection reference for Respiratory Verification Panel (20 x 0.25mL)               675 €
  180. NATSAG-6L         NATtrol detection reference for GBS Positive Control (6 x 0.25 mL)            204 €
  181. NATSAG-6MC     NATtrol detection reference for GBS Positive Control (6 X 0.5 mL)              248 €
  182. NATSAU(MRSA)-ERCL      NATtrol detection reference for Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) External Run Control, Low (6 X 1 mL)       270 €
  183. NATSAU(MRSA)-ERCM    NATtrol detection reference for Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) External Run Control, Medium (6 X 1 mL)              328 €
  184. NATSAU(MSSA)-ERCL      NATtrol detection reference for Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA); -mecA, External Run Control, Low (6X1mL)             270 €
  185. NATSAU(MSSA)-ERCM     NATtrol detection reference for Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA); -mecA,External Run Control, Medium (6X1mL)      328 €
  186. NATSAVP1-C       NATtrol detection reference for Strep A Verification Panel (24 x 0.1mL)    544 €
  187. NATSDG-6MC     NATtrol detection reference for Strep A Negative Control (6 x 0.5mL)        165 €
  188. NATSPN-NNS      NATtrol detection reference for S.pneumoniae    55 €
  189. NATSPY-6L          NATtrol detection reference for Group A Strep Positive Control (6 x 0.25 mL)               198 €
  190. NATSPY-6MC      NATtrol detection reference for Strep A Positive Control (6 x 0.5mL)         165 €
  191. NATSSO-GP         NATtrol detection reference for Shigella sonnei (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)    41 €
  192. NATSTY-GP         NATtrol detection reference for Salmonella typhimurium (Stool Matrix) (0.5 mL)        41 €
  193. NATTVGP-C         NATtrol detection reference for T.vaginalis Verification Panel (17 x 0.7 mL)               556 €
  194. NATTVNEG-6MC               NATtrol detection reference for T.vaginalis Negative Control (6 x 1.2 mL)        262 €
  195. NATTVPOS-6MC               NATtrol detection reference for T.vaginalis Positive Control (6 x 1.2 mL)        262 €
  196. NATVP-BD           NATtrol detection reference for Vaginal Panel (24 x 0.5 mL)          890 €
  197. NATVZV-0001     NATtrol detection reference for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Strain: Ellen (100 cp/mL) (1 mL)          34 €
  198. NATVZV-0002     NATtrol detection reference for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Strain: Ellen (500 cp/mL) (1 mL)          69 €
  199. NATVZV-0003     NATtrol detection reference for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Strain: Ellen (1,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)       119 €
  200. NATVZV-0004     NATtrol detection reference for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Strain: Ellen (10,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    221 €
  201. NATVZV-0005     NATtrol detection reference for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Strain: Ellen (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    381 €
  202. NATWNV-0001  NATtrol detection reference for West Nile Virus (WNV) Strain: NY 2001-6263 (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    34 €
  203. NATWNV-0002  NATtrol detection reference for West Nile Virus (WNV) Strain: NY 2001-6263 (500 cp/mL) (1 mL)          69 €
  204. NATWNV-0003  NATtrol detection reference for West Nile Virus (WNV) Strain: NY 2001-6263 (1,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)       119 €
  205. NATWNV-0004  NATtrol detection reference for West Nile Virus (WNV) Strain: NY 2001-6263 (10,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    221 €
  206. NATWNV-0005  NATtrol detection reference for West Nile Virus (WNV) Strain: NY 2001-6263 (50,000 cp/mL) (1 mL)    381 €
  207. NATZIKV(PRV)-ERCL         NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus (PRVABC59), External Run Control, Low (6 x 1.0 mL)              262 €
  208. NATZIKV(PRV)-ERCM       NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus (PRVABC59), External Run Control, Medium (6 x 1.0mL)       318 €
  209. NATZIKV(PRV)-RV             NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus (PRVABC59) Range Verification Panel (4 x 0.5 mL)     448 €
  210. NATZIKV(PRV)-ST              NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus (PRVABC59) Stock (Qualitative) (1mL)           986 €
  211. NATZIKV-ERCL    NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus, External Run Control, Low (6 x 1 mL)        262 €
  212. NATZIKV-ERCM  NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus, External Run Control, Medium (6 x 1 mL)  318 €
  213. NATZIKV-RV        NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus Range Verification Panel (4 x 0.5 mL)        448 €
  214. NATZIKV-ST         NATtrol detection reference for Zika Virus Stock (Qualitative) (1 mL)         986 €

We tested the virucidal efficacy of five materials; two olanexidine gluconate antiseptics (hand rub formulation and surgical field formulation), two kinds of ethanol solutions at different pH (approx. 3 or 7), and a base component of olanexidine gluconate hand rub formulation against 11 human norovirus genotypes by culture-independent methods.

The infectivity of murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, was significantly reduced after use of the antiseptics. The olanexidine gluconate hand rub demonstrated the strongest virucidal efficacy against human norovirus among the five tested materials.

This study showed that olanexidine gluconate has the potential to become a strong tool for the prevention of human norovirus infection.
Survival of a Norovirus surrogate on surfaces in synthetic gastric fluid.

Norovirus (NoV) can survive in buffer at a range of pH values. However, when variations to pH are combined with the enzymatic conditions typical in gastric fluid, NoV survival is less predictable. Added to this, the material on which expelled vomitus fluid lands e.g. safety vinyl or carpet, might also affect the level of NoV survival in the environment.This study assessed survival of the NoV surrogate Feline calicivirus (FCV) after application onto four material types in the presence of synthetic gastric fluid of varying pH values.


METHODS


Synthetic gastric fluid of varying pH values (1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5) containing FCV (1×106 PFU/100 μL of gastric fluid) was seeded (100 μL) onto four material types: Formica, safety vinyl, cotton sheet and carpet tiles (2 cm × 2 cm) and left for 0, 30 and 60 minutes before recovering and identifying any viable viruses via plaque assay.


FCV survived in synthetic gastric fluid at pH values as low as 2.5 and in some cases as low as 1.5 for at least 30 min when associated with certain materials. Greater average numbers of viable virus were recovered from the more absorbent materials of cotton (1900 PFU/sample) and carpet (1600 PFU/sample) compared with Formica (360 PFU/sample) and safety vinyl (380 PFU/sample).This study showed that FCV can survive in synthetic gastric fluids of low pH values for significant time periods especially on absorbent materials.

This emphasises the importance of ensuring effective cleaning and decontamination procedures, particularly of soft furnishings and laundry, for infection prevention and control of NoV outbreaks.
Effect of heat shock on murine norovirus replication in RAW264.7 cells.

Murine norovirus (MNV), is a prevalent pathogen of laboratory mice closely related to human norovirus (HuNoV), a contagious pathogen known to cause gastroenteritis worldwide; however, the mechanism of norovirus replication remains poorly understood.

Both heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) play an important role in viral genome replication and viral gene expression. In this study, we first found that heat stress exerted a positive effect on the replication of MNV in the murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell line.

Inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsp90 by the specific inhibitors, KNK437 and 17-AGG, respectively showed that Hsp70 and Hsp90 enhanced MNV genome replication and virion production. In addition, we found that KNK437 and 17-AGG could decrease the level of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α mRNA expression in MNV-infected cells. These data suggested that heat stress can positively regulate MNV replication, which advances our understanding of the molecular mechanism of MNV infection.


Retraction for Kim et al., “Newcastle Disease Virus Vector Producing Human Norovirus-Like Particles Induces Serum, Cellular, and Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice”.

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against GII.6 norovirus virus-like particles.

In this study we generated and characterized a series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against GII.6 norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs). Mice were immunized with purified GII.6 NoV VLPs and peptide-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates with the peptide sequence (31 aa) derived from the trypsin cleavage region. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify positive cell clones during cloning and subcloning, and an in vitro VLP-histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) binding blockade assay was used to identify mAbs with blocking ability.

A total of seven mAbs comprising five (1F7, 1F11, 2B6, 2C4, and 2E10) reactive with major capsid proteins (VP1) and two (1E5 and 2B2) reactive with both VP1 proteins and the peptide were identified. mAb 1F7, 1F11, and 2B6 were identified as blocking antibodies. Sandwich ELISA indicated that all these mAbs recognized soluble GII.6 NoV VLPs. Cross-reactivities with GI.7, GII.3, and GII.4 NoV VLPs were observed in indirect and sandwich ELISA. Western blot analysis indicated that all non-blocking mAbs recognized denatured GII.6 VP1 proteins and blocking mAbs only recognized non-denatured proteins. The in vitro VLP-HBGA binding blockade assay indicated that the three blocking antibodies exhibited blocking effects against GII.6 NoV VLPs, but not GI.7, GII.3, and GII.4 NoV VLPs.

Epitope mapping and HBGA blocking assay indicated that mAbs targeting the predicted surface-exposed loop region did not have blocking effects, suggesting a possible important role of this region in regulating NoV-HBGA interactions. This is the first report regarding the characterization of mAbs with blocking ability against GII.6 NoV VLPs. These mAbs might be useful in facilitating our understanding of this group of viruses.


Molecular Epidemiology of GI.3 Norovirus Outbreaks from Acute Gastroenteritis Surveillance System in Taiwan, 2015-2019.

Norovirus is the leading cause of food-borne disease outbreaks. We conducted this study to examine the incidence and molecular characteristics of norovirus genogroup I infections from acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Taiwan. Between January 2015 and June 2019, 2121 acute gastroenteritis clusters were reported to Taiwan CDC, of which 351 (16.5%) clusters were positive for NoV GI, and GI.3 was the most prevalent (36.8%) during the study period. The GI.3 infections were significantly higher than non-GI.3 infections in the age groups of 0-5 and 6-18 years. The phylogenetic analysis of the MCC tree revealed that VP1 genes were divided into 3 groups: the GI.P3-GI.3 strains in Taiwan were genetically close to Japan and the GI.Pd-GI.3 strains were segregated into 2 other groups which were genetically closely related to China. In addition, 7 GI.Pd-GI.3 recombinants were identified circulating in Taiwan between 2018 and 2019, and the prevalence of GI.Pd-GI.3 should be monitored to assess whether this could become the new predominant strains in neighboring Asian countries or other parts of the world. Both GI.P3-GI.3 and GI.Pd-GI.3 strains cocirculate, the recombination among these two lineages occurs frequently, contributing to the genetic diversity and multiple occurrences of different norovirus lineages, and their rapid evolution makes future control more difficult. Continued surveillance and timely interventions are critical to understand the complexity of norovirus gene variation and to monitor the new emerging norovirus strains.


ABO blood group-associated susceptibility to norovirus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Norovirus is responsible for the viral gastroenteritis burden worldwide. Histo-blood type antigens (HBGAs) are the only well-known factor regarding their effect on the pathogenesis of norovirus. Here, we performed the study to further investigate the association of the ABO blood group with norovirus susceptibility.

NATtrol MRSA/SA Negative Control (6 X 0.5 mL)

MDZ060 6 X 0.5 mL
EUR 315.2
Description: Please contact Gentaur in order to receive the datasheet of the product.

NATtrol BK Virus Linearity Panel (6 X 0.25 mL)

NATBK-LIN 6 X 0.25 mL
EUR 529.44
Description: Please contact Gentaur in order to receive the datasheet of the product.

NATtrol C. difficile Positive Control (6 x 0.25 mL)

NATCDI-6L 6 x 0.25 mL
EUR 268.4
Description: Please contact Gentaur in order to receive the datasheet of the product.

NATtrol Clostridium difficile Positive Control (6 x 0.5 mL)

NATCDI-6MC 6 x 0.5 mL
EUR 315.2
Description: Please contact Gentaur in order to receive the datasheet of the product.

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